The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway E1 Class were 0-6-0T steam locomotives designed by William Stroudley in 1874 for short-distance goods and piloting duties. William Stroudley's class E 0-6-0 tank engine of 1874 was conceived as a larger, goods, version of his successful "Terrier". Cylinders, motion and boiler were the same as in his D Class 0-4-2 passenger tanks, with variations for the last seven.
The first six locomotives of this useful and long-lived class were built at Brighton and appeared in traffic between September 1874 and March 1875. They performed well and further orders were placed at regular intervals until December 1891 when the class consisted of eighty locomotives and were used throughout the LBSCR system, principally for goods and shunting, but occasionally for secondary passenger duties.
No. 133 was built in October 1878 and given the name Picardy, in keeping with the rest of the class whose names were all taken from places in Europe. Members of this class had a mixed life expectancy, the first to be scrapped being No. 148 Vienna, built in 1890 and scrapped in 1911. Others, such as 133, continued a long and successful career with quite a number lasting into British Railways days. The last six engines were built by RJ Billinton and were slightly different in that the dome was moved to the second ring of the boiler and a manhole cover, with whistle, was fixed over the firebox. These six were also given different chimneys, to Billinton's design, (a cast-iron type in one piece) and were known as Class E1, subsequently all the earlier engines also became known as Class E1 in the time of D. E. Marsh and were generally known as "E-tanks" or "Black Tanks". Working most of their post-1923 lives on the Brighton section, a few went to work at Southampton Docks, the Isle of Wight and some, after conversion to Class E1/R Radial 0-6-2T in Southern Railway days, to the Torrington-Halwill line of the North Devon & Cornwall Junction Light Railway.
No. 89 Brest was rebuilt in 1911 with new, larger tanks and a new cab and bunker and re-classified as Class E1x. No. 157 Barcelona (the last to be built by Stroudley), was built in 1884 expressly to work the Polegate-Eridge Line, between Eastbourne and Tunbridge Wells, with Gladstone-type 18¼ x 26 in cylinders, larger tanks and bunker, a non-standard larger boiler and air and wheel reversing gear, with valves underneath to work on the steeply-graded lines and was officially classified as being "E Special". This Special E-tank was withdrawn in 1922. No. 96 Salzberg suffered the indignity of an incorrect name, the Austrian city that she was named after is, of course, Salzburg.
After 1894/5 the class gradually began to be replaced by R.J. Billinton's radial tanks of the E3 and E4 classes. Withdrawals commenced in 1908 when one locomotive was broken up for spares, and others were withdrawn at intervals until May 1914, when the increased need for locomotives during the First World War meant that there were no further withdrawals. One locomotive (no.89) was rebuilt with a larger boiler by D. E. Marsh in 1911 and reclassified E1X and renumbered 89A. However this was rebuilt back to a E1 in 1930 once the boiler was condemned.
Under Southern Railway (Great Britain) ownership, withdrawals continued during the 1920s, with some examples sold to industrial railways rather than scrapped. Eight examples were also rebuilt as 0-6-2 radial tank engines for use in the west of England. These were classified as E1/R.
Four E1s were also transferred for duties on the Isle of Wight in 1932 and 1933. They were renumbered W1-W4 and given names related to the Island.
Thirty examples survived the transfer of ownership to the Southern Region of British Railways in 1948 but during the 1950s they were gradually replaced by diesel shunters. The first withdrawal was LBSCR 93 in May 1908. The last survivor, BR No. 32694, was allocated to Southampton Docks. It was withdrawn in July 1961 and scrapped at Eastleigh Works later that year.
One example, No. B110 (originally named Burgundy) was sold in 1927 to the Cannock and Rugeley Colliery Company. They gave it the number 9 and named it Cannock Wood, and it worked their internal system until 1963. After withdrawal it was bought for preservation and moved between several sites before restoration began in 1986 and it returned to action at the East Somerset Railway in 1993. It was withdrawn prematurely in 1997 requiring firebox and boiler repairs, and spent many years in pieces awaiting overhaul, although in 2011 it was cosmetically restored into (inauthentic) BR Black.
B110 is to be sold to the Isle of Wight Steam Railway, in return for the move to the ESR of LMS Ivatt Class 2 no. 46447.
Power type : Steam
Introduced : November 1874
Configuration : 0-6-0T
Driver wheel diameter : 4 ft 6 ins (1.37 m)
Locomotive weight : 44 tons 3 cwt (44.9 t)
Boiler pressure : 160 lb sq in (1.1 MPa)
Coal Capacity : 1 ton 10 cwt
Water Capacity : 900 gals
Cylinders : Two
Cylinder size : 17 in × 24 in (inside) (430 mm × 610 mm); (No. 157 had 18¼ x 26 in)
Valve Gear : Stephenson (slide valves)
Tractive effort : 17,500 lb
Career : London Brighton and South Coast Railway, Southern Railway, Southern Region of British Railways
Class : E1, E1X, E1/R
Power class : Isle of Wight: C, BR: 2F
(a) W1-W4 Fitted with Westinghouse air brakes for use on the Isle of Wight.