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British Railway Steam Locomotive

Please read this statement on the accuracy of the data shown below

Note: To Obtain Consistency in the Steam System, Shed Codes used are those Registered at Nationalisation on 1st January 1948
2nd Grouping Number
1st Grouping Numbersr 443
2nd Pre Grouping Number
1st Pre Grouping Numberlsw 443
Works/Lot Number
Class CodeT14
DesignerDrummond D
BuilderEastleigh Works (LSWR/SR/British Railways)
1948 Shed70A Nine Elms
Last Shed70A Nine Elms
Disposal detailsEastleigh Works (B.R.)
DisposalCut Up
Disposal Date30/11/1949
NotesRebuilt Jul-1931. BR No. allocated but not worn

Class Information

The LSWR Class T14 was a class of ten 4-6-0 locomotives designed by Dugald Drummond for express passenger use on the London and South Western Railway

and constructed at Eastleigh in 1911–12. Dugald Drummond had a problem: he had a proven ability to design excellent motive power but the LSWR's

passenger requirements were increasing exponentially, rolling stock was becoming heavier and faster point-to-point schedules were a pressing need.

He had already introduced the F13, E14, G14 and P14 classes of 4-6-0 and they had all fallen significantly short of hopes and expectations. His final

throw of the 4-6-0 dice was the T14 class which produced marginally better performance characteristics than its predecessors but with the same

liabilities of heavy coal and water consumption combined with the serious ongoing ailment of hot axle boxes that afflicted all his 4-6-0s.

Dugald Drummond's success with the previous 4-4-0 designs created a new problem. His new and robust designs allowed the timetables to be accelerated,

and it soon became clear that faster passenger locomotives with a large of power-to-weight ratio were needed. This was especially true when the LSWR's

passenger requirements were increasing with lengthened, heavier rolling stock that needed to keep up with faster point-to-point schedules.

However, Drummond knew that this could only be achieved via the use of the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement and a multiple-cylinder layout. He had already

introduced the F13, E14, G14 and P14 as new classes of 4-6-0, but they had all fallen significantly short of keeping pace with the demands made of


Despite his track record, Drummond decided to return to the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement. This was because such a design had been proven on other railways

such as the Great Central, and the additional traction provided by an extra pair of driving wheels was useful in starting heavy trains. The resultant

design, class T14, incorporated many features seen previously on his other 4-6-0 designs, the Drummond lipped chimney, large splashers. However,

driving wheel diameter was increased by seven inches to 6' 7", and these were powered by four cylinders set in line in an arrangement similar to German

practice in the first years of the 20th century. Divided drive was retained with the inside cylinders driving the front axle whilst the outside ones

propelled the second axle. Steam distribution was by two sets of Walschaerts valve gear on the outside, the motion of the inside valves being derived

through rockers. Six locomotives (447 and 458—62) were fitted with Drummond's smokebox superheater, the other four used saturated steam.

However, despite more consideration over the failings of his previous designs, the class was still plagued by the liabilities of heavy coal and water

consumption combined with the serious ongoing ailment of hot axle boxes that afflicted all his previous 4-6-0s.

Between 1930 and 1931, Richard Maunsell, who was adept at standardising locomotives through measured simplicity, applied his principles to all members

of the class. The infamous Drummond 'paddlebox' splashers over the driving wheels were removed to be replaced by a simple raised running plate. A

further improvement was the installation of mechanical lubricators; this in tandem with the removal of the bulky "paddlebox" splashers went some way

towards curing a recurring problem of over-heated axle boxes.

The boiler was another feature of the design that received attention, with Maunsell installing a superheater during the rebuilding, and reduced the

boiler pressure to 175 lbf/in². However, the locomotive still used a lot of coal and water, resulting in an overall lack of any improvement in


It was to be a logistical accident that eventually lengthened the T14's lives and is worth recording here. No. 447 required a replacement chimney due

to wear and oxidisation in October 1940 but no Drummond spares were available and so a short stove-pipe chimney, all that was available at the time,

was somehow fitted. When outshopped and pressed into service, there was a marked improvement in its steaming ability due to the improved draughting.

The same enhancement was subsequently applied to all but one of the class as they went through Eastleigh works for overhaul.

Numbers 447 and 458-62 were fitted with the Drummond smokebox superheater, or steam drier. This steam drier consisted of 2 inch tubes arrabged in grids

in communication with the boiler tubes and therefore exposed to the hot combustion gases. They were in chambers which took the live steam whilst on its

way to the steam chests. The remaining four engines used saturated steam, with the entire class later being fitted with the Eastleigh superheater by

Urie, then later the Maunsell type by Maunsell.

Livery under the LSWR was Drummond's LSWR Passenger Sage Green, with purple-brown edging and black and white lining. Under Southern Railway ownership

from grouping in 1923, the locomotives were outshopped in Richard Maunsell's darker version of the LSWR Sage Green with yellow lettering on the tender,

with black and white lining.

This livery was continued under Bulleid despite his experimentation with Malachite Green, though the 'Southern' lettering on the tender was changed to

the 'Sunshine Yellow' style. During the Second World War, members of the class outshopped form overhaul were turned out in wartime black.

The class was numbered in two blocks by the LSWR. Numbering under the Southern retained the LSWR allocations.

Livery after Nationalisation was initially Southern livery with 'British Railways' on the tender, and an 'S' prefix on the number. The class was

subsequently outshopped in BR Mixed Traffic Black with red and white lining, with the BR crest on the tender.

Locomotive numbering was per BR standard practice. Numbering was based upon the batches built. However, one of the locomotives had been withdrawn by

the start of 1948, resulting in a gap in the sequence.

The T14 s were the most successful of Drummond's abysmal 4-6-0 designs for the LSWR, though they still displayed the old, costly liabilities of heavy

coal and water consumption on a railway that did not employ water troughs, which was combined with a high frequency of hot axle boxes. Both were

complaints that had afflicted all his previous 4-6-0s, and did not endear them to locomotive crews.

All were based at Nine Elms from new and were used exclusively on expresses to Bournemouth and Salisbury. Perhaps it says a great deal about the T14's

capabilities (or lack of) that the most difficult turn, according to Bradley, was a Salisbury working on tight timings. The class struggled on these

'racing stretches.' With intermediate stops at Surbiton and Woking, a D15 was the preferred motive power because they kept better time than a T14.

Returning to the general unpopularity of the Drummond 4-6-0s in general, it is worth noting that only the T14s managed a lifespan in excess of 19

years, which tells its own story. That they had a life of only 8 years on the LSWR 'top link' at the top of their appointed tree is also testament to

their own inadequacy as they were quickly replaced by Maunsell's N15s as they became available. However, their potential in secondary duties gave

Maunsell the opportunity to attempt to right the problems associated with the original design. Superheating helped to solve the problems of efficiency

in terms of coal and water, whilst the removal of the splashers meant ease of access to the wheels and airflow to the axleboxes.

That the T14s survived longer than their cousins is entirely due to Maunsell who saw that they had potential as a secondary level resource and also

knew what probably needed doing to them to ensure their prolonged life. In 1930/1 he applied his well-known principles of simplicity and pragmatism to

all ten members of the class. The infamous 'paddleboxes' over the driving wheels went and were replaced by a simple raised running plate. This,

together with the installation of mechanical lubricators, went some way towards curing the hot-box problem. Maunsell also fitted his own pattern of

superheater during the rebuilding phase but, with just one problem partially solved and an arguably better-looking engine, there was still no sign of

any marked improvement in performance.

Of the nine locos at Nationalisation, only 30446 and 30461 were renumbered.

The first withdrawal took place in 1940 with No. 458 suffering air raid damage following a direct hit on Nine Elms shed. But the rest carried on into

nationalisation with the beginning of the end for the remainder in November 1948 and the last one surviving until June 1951.

The first withdrawal was SR 458 in 1940 after being destroyed in an air raid on Nine Elms shed.
The first BR withdrawals were 30445, 30459 and 30460 in November 1948 from Nine Elms shed.
The last loco withdrawn was 30461 in June 1951 was from Nine Elms shed.
None are preserved.

Designer : Dugald Drummond
Builder : LSWR Eastleigh Works
Introduced : 1911
Build date : 1911–12
Total produced : 10 - Total to BR 9
Configuration : 4-6-0
Gauge : 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm)
Leading wheel diameter : 43 in (1.092 m)
Driver wheel diameter : 6 ft 7 ins (2.007 m)
Length : 65 ft 6.25 in (19.97 m)
Locomotive weight : 76 tons 10 cwt (77.7 t)
Tender weight : 60 tons 8 cwt
Fuel type : Coal
Fuel capacity ; 5 tons (5.1 t)
Water capacity : 5,800 imp gallons (26,000 l)
Boiler pressure : 200 lb sq in (1.38 MPa) (saturated); 175 lb sq in (1.21 MPa) (superheated)
Cylinders : Four
Cylinder size : 15 Χ 26 in (381 660 mm)
Valve gear : Walschaerts with rocking arms
Tractive effort : 22,030 lb (slide valves)
Career : London and South Western Railway, Southern Railway, Southern Region of British Railways
Power group : 4P
Nicknames : Paddleboxes or Paddleboats
Retired : 1940, 1948–1951
Disposition : All scrapped

Built at:
443-447 Eastleigh Works 1911 total 5.
458-462 Eastleigh Works 1911-1912 total 5.

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