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British Railway Steam Locomotive

Please read this statement on the accuracy of the data shown below

Note: To Obtain Consistency in the Steam System, Shed Codes used are those Registered at Nationalisation on 1st January 1948
2nd Grouping Number
1st Grouping Numbersr 400
2nd Pre Grouping Number
1st Pre Grouping Numberlsw 400
Works/Lot Number
Class CodeS11
DesignerDrummond D
BuilderNine Elms (LSWR)
1948 Shed71D Fratton
Last Shed70C Guildford
Disposal detailsAshford Works (B.R.)
DisposalCut Up
Disposal Date28/02/1955
NotesEastleigh Super Heater Fitted Jul 1921. Maunsell Super Heater Fitted Nov 1931

Class Information

The LSWR Class S11 was a class of 10 4-4-0 steam locomotives designed for express passenger work by Dugald Drummond. They were introduced to services on the London and South Western Railway in 1903. None of the class survived into preservation after their brief career in British Railways ownership.

The problem of uniting both power and traction in a compact express passenger locomotive design had taxed the Locomotive Superintendents of the LSWR for many years. Joseph Beattie was the first to establish the LSWR's policy of using smaller wheeled locomotives to handle these steep gradients:-

In the early years of LSWR services to the west of Salisbury Joseph Beattie established the policy of using smaller wheeled locomotives to handle the steep gradients, a policy that continued until Dugald Drummond arrived on the scene and sent his T9s to work these services. However, after a while he, too, came to the conclusion that smaller wheels were better for the difficult working conditions there and was persuaded to build ten 4-4-0s with 6' 1" driving wheels in 1903. Completed by the end of this year, this S11 class was nothing more than the late build T9s with smaller wheels and 4' 9" diameter boilers. Originally rostered to the West Country, the smaller wheels and larger boilers offered no advantage over the Greyhounds on the banks with crews preferring the latters' considerably higher speeds on downgrades and level stretches of line. The S11s were also thirstier, an important factor on a railway with no water troughs! Their higher pitched boiler affected the ride to such an extent that drivers were not inclined to approach junctions or speed restrictions at the same rate as they would in a T9. With this point in mind it is, perhaps, unfortunate that an S11 wasn't rostered for the Ocean Mail special on 10th June 1906. The S11s were, however, generally good locomotives that served the LSWR well and were not displaced until the Urie N15 class 4-6-0s came on the scene in 1918.

Dugald Drummond attempted to grasp the nettle by utilising his new T9 class over the arduous route. It soon became clear that despite the merits of the T9s for fast running on the various express passenger services to the west of England, the large wheels of the class were not suited for the task in hand. A new design of locomotive was needed that incorporated the desired improvements to enable fast running on gradients.
Construction history

Drummond took the decision to construct a new class of ten 4-4-0s especially for this part of the LSWR network. The class was to incorporate the same frames as the T9, though smaller 6 feet 1 inch (1.854 m) driving wheels were substituted, whilst they also had balanced crank axles. The boiler was also of 5 feet (1.52 m) diameter, another feature that was different from the T9s, capped off with a dome and stovepipe chimney. Production began at Nine Elms in 1903, and had ended by the end of the year with a total of ten locomotives. All locomotives were fitted with the Drummond "watercart" eight-wheel tender for longer running on the LSWR network.

An important technical advance made by Drummond with the S11 class was the use of a built-up mild steel crank axle in which the crank webs were extended in a direction contrary to the crank pins, with the 'tail' so formed avoiding the need for balance weights on the driving wheels. The S11s were the first British locomotives to be balanced in this way.

The locomotive was fitted with cross-water tubes fitted into the firebox, as featured on the T9 class, although feedwater tubes were not fitted. This was an attempt to increase the heat surface area of the water, which was achieved, though at a cost in boiler complexity. Between 1920 and 1922 the locomotives were all fitted with Eastleigh style superheaters by Robert Urie after took over from Drummond. These were subsequently replaced by those of the Maunsell variety, starting from 1925.

Year Batch Qty LSWR No.
1903 S11 5 395399
1903 V11 5 400404

Under the LSWR, the was outshopped in the LSWR Passenger Sage Green livery with purple-brown edging, creating panels of green. This was further lined in white and black with 'LSWR' in gilt on the tender tank sides.

When transferred to Southern Railway ownership after 1923, the locomotives were outshopped in Richard Maunsell's darker version of the LSWR livery. The LSWR standard gilt lettering was changed to yellow with 'Southern' on the water tank sides. The locomotives also featured black and white lining.

However, despite Bulleid's experimentation with Malachite Green livery on express passenger locomotive, the Maunsell livery was continued with the S11s, though the 'Southern' lettering on the tender was changed to the 'Sunshine Yellow' style. During the Second World War, members of the class outshopped form overhaul were turned out in wartime black, and some of the class retained this livery to Nationalisation.

Livery after Nationalisation was initially Southern Wartime Black livery with 'British Railways' on the tender, and an 'S' prefix on the number, until superseded by the Standard BR 30xxx series.

The S11s were regarded as good locomotives on expresses around the ports served by the LSWR. The class was at first rostered to the West Country in order to ply their trade upon the gradients they were designed for. However, it was soon realised that the smaller wheels and larger boilers were not living up to expectations of successful operation on the route. The class was slower and more cumbersome than their siblings. This led to crews displaying their preference for the T9's higher speeds downhill and on the level stretches of railway.

Another aspect that did not endear the class to crewmen on this route was the fact that with a larger boiler, the S11s were heavier on water, which was a vital consideration on a railway with no water troughs to replenish the supply, and therefore skilled use of the injectors was required. The boiler was mounted higher above the frames, which led to instability concerning the ride of the locomotives at high speeds. As a result, more care had to be taken by crewmen in approaching junctions and speed restrictions. Due to their early withdrawal period, none were preserved for posterity.

In 1941 all ten locomotives of this class were lent to the LM&SR, shedded mainly on the S&DJR but with occasional workings from Saltley, Burton and Peterborough. 403 and 404 returned to the Southern on 30th December 1944, 395, 396 and 397 on 6th January 1945, 402 on 3rd March 1945 with the final four returning during April 1945.

The first loco withdrawn was 30402 in March 1951 from Plymouth Friary shed.
The last loco withdrawn was 30400 in February 1955 from Guildford shed.
None are preserved.

Technical Details

Designer : Dugald Drummond
Builder : LSWR Nine Elms Works
Introduced : 1903
Build date : 1903
Total produced : 10
Configuration : 4-4-0
Gauge : 4 ft 8 in (1,435 mm)
Leading wheel diameter : 3 ft 7 in (1.092 m)
Driver wheel diameter : 6 ft 1 in (1.854 m)
Length : 57 ft 5/8 ins (55 ft 11 in with 6 wheel tender)
Weight Loco : 53 tons 15 cwt
weight Tender 39 tons 12 cwt (a), 44 tons 17 cwt
Locomotive & tender combined weight : 96 tons 17 cwt (97 tons 32 cwt after superheating)
Fuel type : Coal
Fuel capacity : 5 tons (5.1 tonnes)
Water capacity : 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l)
Boiler pressure : 175 lb sq in (1.21 MPa)
Cylinders : Two (inside)
Cylinder size : 19 26 in (483 660 mm)
Valve Gear : Stephenson (piston valves)
Tractive effort : 19,390 lb
Career ; London and South Western Railway, Southern Railway, Southern Region of British Railways
Class : LSWR and SR: S11, BR: 2P later 3P
SR Power Classification : E
Retired : 19511954
Disposition : All scrapped

(a) 30395, 30397

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