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British Railway Steam Locomotive

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Note: To Obtain Consistency in the Steam System, Shed Codes used are those Registered at Nationalisation on 1st January 1948
2nd Grouping Number
1st Grouping Numbersr 139
2nd Pre Grouping Number
1st Pre Grouping Numberlsw 139
Works/Lot Number
Class CodeK10
DesignerDrummond D
BuilderNine Elms (LSWR)
1948 Shed70B Feltham
Last Shed70B Feltham
Disposal detailsEastleigh Works (B.R.)
DisposalCut Up
Disposal Date30/11/1948
NotesBR No. allocated but not worn

Class Information

The London and South Western Railway K10 Class was a class of 40 4-4-0 steam locomotives designed for mixed traffic work. They were introduced on the London and South Western Railway in 1901 and 1902 to the design of Dugald Drummond, where they earned the nickname "Small Hoppers".

In order to satisfy a pressing requirement for mixed-traffic locomotives, Drummond adopted the solution of a small-wheeled 4-4-0 he had previously employed on the Caledonian Railway. The resulting K10 had the same 5' 7" diameter coupled wheels as the M7 and the boiler was interchangeable with the M7, 700 and C8 classes

In 1901/2 Dugald Drummond introduced the K10 class (or "Small Hoppers"), a class of 40 4-4-0s which shared the same cylinders, boiler and firebox as his first 4-4-0 for the LSWR, the C8 class of 1897, although with 40 2¾ inch water tubes the K10's heating surface was greater. The frame length and wheelbase were identical, but with smaller wheels as they were intended for mixed traffic duties, though they shared the same problem as the C8s, an inability to sustain their power, which led to them having only occasional main line use. This defect did not, however, prevent them having an exemplary career on secondary routes as the LSWR had few heavy goods services that would have taxed them to the limit. No. 137, built in September 1902, was the 650th engine to be built at Nine Elms. The class was never superheated, which might have improved their steaming.

Forty of the class were subsequently outshopped from the LSWR's Nine Elms Locomotive Works. They were generally paired with a 6-wheel tender because of their intended short journey lengths, which included local stopping trains and medium-level freight haulage, but as with the later L11 class, some could occasionally be seen with a 4000 gallon "watercart" tender for longer trips.

Livery under the LSWR was Drummond's LSWR Passenger Sage Green, with purple-brown edging and black and white lining. Under Southern Railway ownership from grouping in 1923, the locomotives were outshopped in Richard Maunsell's darker version of the LSWR Sage Green with yellow lettering on the tender, with black and white lining. This livery was continued under Oliver Bulleid despite his experimentations with Malachite green, though the 'Southern' lettering on the tender was changed to the 'Sunshine Yellow' style. During the Second World War, members of the class outshopped form overhaul were turned out in wartime black. The class was haphazardly numbered by the LSWR. Numbering under the Southern retained the LSWR allocations.

The water tubes in the firebox did not last long as Urie began removing them quite early in his career. Normally coupled to a standard Drummond 14 foot tender, seven were allocated his 4,000 gallon bogie tenders which, rather than remain with the same locomotive, tended to be switched around within the class, though 135, 144, 380, 382, 386, 391 and 392 seem to have been the main users. After the grouping of 1923 the Southern Railway sent ten of the class to work on the former SECR lines where they were fitted with Urie stovepipe chimneys. They later returned to ex-LWSR lines though some of these ten locos were occasionally sent to Ashford for repairs. One, No. 140, had its Drummond chimney restored.

Wartime service saw a few of the locos on foreign metals. In 1941 one loco was lent to the War Department, returning in 1942, whilst five others were lent to the LMSR for working their section of the Somerset & Dorset line then in August 1942 two of these five were at Gloucester and one at Bristol. They then moved to Nottingham until December 1944 whilst the remaining two of the original five spent the latter part of the war at Bristol, returning to the Southern in March 1945.

The class shared the same inability to sustain their power over long distances as the C8s, leading to the K10s being employed only on occasional main line trips over short distances. The class therefore gained the nickname of "Small Hoppers" from their crews. The aforementioned defect was not a hindrance, with the class leading an admirable career on secondary routes. Due to the LSWR being primarily a passenger railway, there were few heavy goods services that would have proved too much for the design despite its flaws.

Developed further by Drummond as Class L11. According to Dendy Marshall, the main differences between the K10 "Small Hoppers" and the L11 "Large Hoppers" were:

K10 : 9 foot coupling rods and C8 type boiler
L11 : 10 foot coupling rods and T9 type boiler

Withdrawals started in January 1947 and although the majority of the class saw service with British Railways. Thirty-one passed into British Railways ownership on nationalisation in 1948. Livery after nationalisation was initially Southern livery with 'British Railways' on the tender, and an 'S' prefix on the number. The class was subsequently outshopped in BR Mixed Traffic Black with red and white lining, with the BR crest on the tender. Locomotive numbering was per BR standard practice, from 30135 to 30153 and 30329 to 30394. However, thirteen of the locomotives had been withdrawn by the end of 1948, resulting in gaps in the sequence. it was not for long with the last one withdrawn by July 1951. 30382 was the only loco to wear its BR number.

Number Series 30135/37/39-46/50-53, 30329/40/41/43/45/80/80-86/89-94.

The first withdrawals were SR locos 136, 138, 149, 342, 344 and 347 in January 1947 from Bournemouth, Exmouth Junction, Nine Elms, Eastleigh, Yeovil Town and Feltham sheds respectively.
The first BR withdrawal was 30343 in January 1948 from Guildford shed.
The last loco withdrawn was 30389 in July 1951 from Yeovil Town shed.
None are preserved.

Technical Details

Designer : Dugald Drummond
Builder : LSWR Nine Elms Works
Build date : 1901-1902
Total produced : 40 - Total to BR 31.
Configuration : 4-4-0
Gauge : 4 ft 8½ in (1,435 mm)
Leading wheel diameter : 3 ft 7 in (1.12 m)
Driver wheel diameter : 5ft 7in (1.7 m)
Length ft in ( m)
Locomotive weight : 46 tons 14 cwt (47.4 tonnes)
Tender weight : 44 tons 17 cwt (a), 39 tons 12 cwt (b), 40 tons 14 cwt (c)
Fuel type : coal
Fuel capacity : 5 tons (5.1 tonnes)
Water capacity : 4,000 imp. gallons ( 18.2 m3)
Boiler pressure : 175 lbf/in²
Cylinders : 2
Cylinder size : 18½in x 26in (470mm × 660mm)
Valve Gear : Stephenson (slide valves)
Tractive effort : 19,755 lbf
Career : London and South Western Railway, Southern Railway, Southern Region of British Railways
Nickname : Small Hoppers

(a) 30137/40/41, 30345/84/94.

(b) 30142/51, 30329/41/83/89/90.

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