Thu 22 Feb 2018 13:06:24


British Railway Steam Locomotive

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Note: To Obtain Consistency in the Steam System, Shed Codes used are those Registered at Nationalisation on 1st January 1948
2nd Grouping Number
1st Grouping Numbersr 603
2nd Pre Grouping Number
1st Pre Grouping Numberlsw 603
Works/Lot Number 4508
Class CodeA12
DesignerAdams W
BuilderNine Elms (LSWR)
1948 Shed
Last Shed
Disposal detailsEastleigh Works (B.R.)
DisposalCut Up
Disposal Date31/08/1935

Class Information

Prior to 1887 William Adams had sourced all his locomotives for the L&SWR from outside contractors, but in that year he recommenced locomotive construction at the L&SWR's Nine Elms Works, and the first to be constructed were the A12 (or 527) class 0-4-2s that were popularly referred to as "Jubilees" due to the fact that they were introduced during the fiftieth year of Queen Victoria's reign.

The A12 locomotives of the London and South Western Railway were built between the years 1887 and 1895 to the design of William Adams. Ninety of the locomotives were built; numbered 527-556 (built at Nine Elms Works); 607-646 (Neilson and Company (although
officially known as O4 class); 597-606 and 647-656 (Nine Elms), they were unusual for their time. The wheelbase type (0-4-2) was being built by few of the other railway companies, and were soon being phased out (the Great Northern Railway had 150 such locomotives). They bore the nickname "Jubilees", because the first batch appeared in the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign. The original stovepipe chimneys were replaced by Drummond chimneys during the early 1900s.

The engines were quite different from any that had yet been seen on a Britsh railway, with the exception of the L&BSCR's "Gladstone" class and were mainly used for heavy excursions and troop train movements, fast goods services to the west of England, Weymouth and Southampton and passenger train services in north and central Devon. They were also a first for the L&SWR in being provided with cast brass number plates rather than the individual numbers that had been used previously. These handsome plates, with their red background and highly polished state, continued throughout Adams' and Beattie's days, though were discarded when Drummond came on the scene.

They had 18" x 26" cylinders with the steam chest placed, as with Stroudley's "Gladstones", underneath. 6' diameter coupled wheels were provided, together with 4' diameter trailing wheels running in outside axleboxes. The first of the class, No.527, had trailing springs situated outside the frames whilst the remainder had them placed behind the frames.

Built in two batches, the first 30 engines had screw reversing gear and, for all bar the final three, second-hand tenders from Beyer, Peacock goods engines purchased by Adams' predecessors, with their water capacity increased to 3,000 gallons by adding a well tank.

Many years later most of these tenders were replaced by Adams tenders from locomotives that had been scrapped. The three new tenders had a capcity of 3,300 gallons.

The first 30 locomotives were so successful that Adams decided to order another 60, of which 40 were built by Neilson & Co. of Glasgow. These locomotives were officially known as class O4 and had certain differences from the A12 class such as the steam chest placed between rather than below the cylinders and the motion reversible by lever rather than by screw. The splashers were adorned with brass beading but when dour Drummond came on the scene he had this frivilous decoration removed! Depite the great success of these 90 engines they were the only ones of 0-4-2 wheel arrangement that were ever built by or for the L&SWR.

Withdrawals started in 1928 but four of the Neilson engines survived into British Railways ownership - just! One of these, 629, was one of seven locomotives withdrawn in January 1939 but reprieved in October of that year due to the increased demand for locomotives following the outbreak of war in September 1939. None of these four survivors carried a British Railways number.

The L&SWR was better than the other Southern Companies in keeping locomotive classes more or less in consecutive numbers

Year Order Builder Quantity LSWR numbers
1887 A12 LSWR Nine Elms 10 527536
1888 E1 LSWR Nine Elms 10 537546
1889 M2 LSWR Nine Elms 10 547556
189394 O4 LSWR Nine Elms 10 597606
189293 - Neilson & Co. 40 45064545 607646
189495 K6 LSWR Nine Elms 10 647656

All 90 passed to the Southern Railway in 1923. Withdrawals started in 1928, with four of the class surviving to Nationalisation, but all were withdrawn in the first year of British Railways.
None of the locomotives were preserved.

Designer : William Adams
Builder : LSWR Nine Elms Works (50) and Neilson & Co. (40)
Build date : 18871894
Total produced : 90
Weight : Loco 42 tons 7 cwt, Tend 33 tons 4 cwt
Configuration : 0-4-2
UIC classification : B1n
Gauge : 4 ft 8 1/2 in (1,435 mm)
Driver Wheel diameter : 73 in (1.854 m)
Trailing wheel diameter : 48 in (1.219 m)
Boiler pressure : 160lb/sq in NS (1.10 MPa)
Water Capacity : 3,000 gals* and 3,300 galls (*Locos 554, 555 & 556 - 3,300 gals)
Cylinders : Two, inside
Cylinder size : 1826 in (457660 mm)
Valve Gear : Stephenson (slide valves)
Tractive effort : 15,900 lb
Career : London and South Western Railway, Southern Railway, British Railways
Class : LSWR: A12, SR: A12, BR: 1MT
Nicknames : Jubilees
Retired : 19281948
Disposition : All scrapped

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