British Railway History Item
BR Class Riddles British Railways Standard 9F 2-10-0
Built 1954-1960. Designed by Robert A. Riddles.
Total built by BR 251.
Introduced 1954 for heavy mineral traffic. Designed at Brighton. Classified 9F.
(a) 92020-92029 Introduced 1955. Fitted with Crosti boiler and pre heater. Pre heater sealed off for orthodox working from 1959 and later removed when the locos were rebuilt as conventional engines at Crewe Works. 92028 was the first Crosti to be taken out of service for conversion.
(b) 92000/1/2/6/79, 92178/83-99, 92200-50 Introduced 1957. Fitted with double chimney. (92000/1/6 built with single chimney).
(c) 92165/6/7 Introduced 1958. Fitted with mechanical stoker & double chimney.
(d) 92250 Introduced 1960. Fitted with Giesl oblong ejector & BR1G tender.
(e) 92060-66, 92097-99 Fitted with Westinghouse air compressors for working Tyne Dock/Consett iron ore trains. All were initially allocated to Tyne Dock shed from where 92060-64 and 92097-99 were withdrawn between June and November 1966 after the ore trains were dieselised. 92065 was transferred to Wakefield Shed in November 1966, from where it was withdrawn in April 1967.
Loco 92220 was the last steam locomotive built for British Railways and was completed at Swindon Works in March 1960. To commemorate the occasion, it was named 'Evening Star' by Keith Grand, General Manager of the Western Region and painted in BR lined green livery, the remainder of the class being painted black.
Number Series 92000-92250.
Built at British Railway's Crewe (178) and Swindon (73) Works.
92000-92014 Order No. E487 Crewe
92015-92019 Order No. E491 Crewe
92020-92029 Order No. E488 Crewe
92030-92049 Order No. E489 Crewe
92050-92086 Order No. E490 Crewe
92087-92096 Lot No. 421 Swindon
92097-92134 Order No. E493 Crewe
92135-92177 Order No. E494 Crewe
92178-92202 Lot No. 427 Swindon
92203-92220 Lot No. 429 Swindon
92221-92250 Order No. E497 Crewe
The original BR locomotive standardisation plan called for a dedicated heavy freight 2-8-2 locomotive. The design made use of the boiler as fitted to the Britannia 4-6-2 locomotive and many other standard parts. In support of a 2-8-2, the Chief Draughtsman Committee produced a document outlining ten reasons why a 2-10-0 would not be suitable, one of which was the limitations imposed by loading gauge on the size of the boiler.
However, by the time the need arose for a standard heavy freight locomotive, the design for a 2-10-0 was considered acceptable, but its boiler was not standard with any others in the range. By using coupled wheels of 5ft (1.52m), an increased running speed could be obtained and still leave it possible to fit a boiler of reasonable diameter with a wide firebox. After the basic design had been worked out at Derby, responsibility for detailed design work was passed to the Brighton drawing office. Two outside Britannia class cylinders of 20in (71cm) stroke were incorporated and as the boiler pressure of 250psi was the same, it followed that both classes would be capable of developing the same power although the 9Fs smaller wheel diameter would result in a higher tractive effort. At a rotating speed of five revolutions per second, the 9F would be running at 53.5mph. In service the efficacy of the arrangement was proven by the reputation the 9Fs had for smooth running even at high speeds. In order to negotiate tight curves without the risk of derailment, the centre driving wheels were flangeless, whilst wheels on the second and fourth coupled axles had tyres with thin flanges.
The weight in working order of a standard locomotive was 86ton 14cwt, with the various tenders ranging from 50ton 5cwt to 55ton 5 cwt. There were five differrnt types of tender of varying water capacity and designated to the various regions as follows:
BR1B 4,725 gallons NER and LMR
BR1C 4,725 gallons LMR
BR1F 5,625 gallons ER
BR1G 5,000 gallons WR
BR1K 4,250 gallons LMR
Frames were substantial, 1.25in (3.2cm) thick, but being of the plate type the design was flexible enough to compensate for the long wheelbase of 21ft 8in. Plain type axlebox bearings used for the coupled wheels were similar to the LMS pattern.
Following construction of the first twenty locos, a decision was made to construct ten with Crosti type heat exchangers and BR1B tenders. The Crosti system was used successfully in Europe, especially Italy and Germany, where improvements in coal consumption up to 20 per cent had been achieved. The principle of the system was to use the heat remaining in the exhaust gas to heat incomimg boiler feed water and required additional heat exchangers. Only one could be used on the 9F, being positioned between the frames beneath the boiler. Modifications had to be made to the smokebox in order to redirect hot gases away from the normal chimney through the heat exchanger to a chimney positioned on the right hand side of the locomotive just in front of the firebox. The normal chimney was retained for lighting up, but was blanked off while running. This also produced problems in that the standard 9F boiler (type BR9) could not be used, a smaller diameter boiler being needed. After trials with other 9Fs the small improvements in efficiency gained were not considered benificial when compared against the extra costs of fitting the system and royalty payments to be made Crosti. The locos were also marginally less powerful and footplate crews disliked them as exhaust blew into the cabs in cross winds. Corrosion of the preheater smokebox and chimney was severe due to the colder exhaust gas precipitating sulphuric acid (from the sulphur in the coal). In the early 1960s, the ten locos subsequently had their preheaters removed and operated as normal locomotives, still retaining their smaller boilers. These smaller boilers resulted in a 6.6ton loss in the overall weight of the loco, which in technical terms made them 8Fs.
Operationally, the class was divided between the main regions except the Southern and Scottish Regions. Although, in the early 1960s the Southern had a small batch for a limited period for working the Fawley oil trains over the Didcot, Newbury & Southampton line. The Scottish Region ran trials for a while but no 9Fs were ever permanently allocated in Scotland which had is own fleet of 20 Riddles ex-WD 2-10-0s. The main allocations were: WR 56, LMR 100, ER 85, NER 10.
Another device tried out on one 9F was the Giesel ejector, with 92250 being fitted with the device during 1959. The unit would produce an adequate smokebox vacuum without imposing excessive back pressure on the cylinder exhaust system, thus enabling output pressure to increase. However, it was the claimed ability to burn lower quality coal which attracted BR. The Rugby Stationary Test Plant was used for tests along with three different types of coal. The tests would be considered a success if the savings could pay for the ?500 cost of the ejector in two years. However, there was nothing in the results to encourage the adoption of the ejector or even further trials. 92250 retained the ejector for the rest of its life but did not distinguish itself amongst other 9Fs when burning the same high quality coal.
The 9F was used for the further trial of a device aimed at improving the output of its boiler, namely a mechanical stoker. It was decided to fit three locos in the class, Nos. 92165, 92166 and 92167 with the American designed Berkley stokers. The device basically consisted of a screw feed conveyor system which supplied coal to a distributor plate just inside the firehole, four separate controllable steam jets being use to blast the coal to the front, back, left or right side of the grate. The screw system was operated by a small steam engine, the speed being regulated by the fireman. Hand firing was also possible in case the system failed. The system was tried out on the Rugby Stationary Test Plant and on the tracks with a mobile test unit. Again, results were no more encouraging than those obtained for the other two devices mentioned above. Compared with convential stoking, mechanical stokers were clearly wasteful and there appeared to be no advantage, especially with certain types of low quality coal which caused problems with the screw as it tended to break down the lumps into dusty slack. The locos were based for most of their life at Saltley shed in Birmingham and were regularly employed hauling trains to Carlisle over the Settle and Carlisle line. The Berkley stokers were removed as the locos received overhauls at the works during the early 1960s. They were the only locos to carry the BR1K tender fitted.
One modification which suited the 9Fs was the fitting of a double blast pipe and chimney. As with other standard locomotives, the device produced an improvement in performance, but even then it was not so great as to convince those in power existing locos should be converted.
The impact of 9Fs on freight services was immediate and impressive. Working throughout the system they proved their worth by hauling heavier trains at higher speeds than had previously been the case. Some noteable workings were:
Southern Region 1,200 ton (1,222 tonne) oil trains from Fawley over the Didcot, Newbury &
Southampton line to the Esso depot near Birmimgham.
Iron ore traffic from Bidston docks to the Summer's steel works at Shotton.
Tyne Dock to Consett iron ore trains. These were probally the hardest duties the 9Fs had to perform as nine loaded hopper wagons weighed 800 tons (815 tonnes) and gradients were as 1 in 35 at times. The ten locos used on this line were fitted with Westinghouse air compressors for working the hopper doors and had to be banked up the severe gradients.
Anhydrite trains hauled from Long Meg on the Settle and Carlisle line to Widnes, while limestone trains would be taken from Shap quarry.
Banking passenger and freight trains on The Lickey Incline. One loco, 92079 was the most famous of the bankers. Bases at Bromsgrove shed in the late 1950s and early 60s, it replaced the famous ex Midland Railway 0-10-0 banker Big Bertha and was fitted with the 0-10-0s large headlamp which was used to help coupling up at night. When 92079 was out of action, it could take up to four 94xx Pannier Tanks to do the same work.
The locos sent to operate on the Somerset & Dorset line, which included 92220 Evening Star, revolutionised traffic even if the did fail to save the route. While there, they found regular use on passenger trains including The Pines Express. The last Pines Express in September 1962 was hauled by 92220. S&D trains were not their first passenger duties. As soon as they had entered service, they were to be found on summer relief and excursion work. High speed expresses running on the Great Central and Western Region became almost common place, especially the Paddington to South Wales line (including the presige Red Dragon), until some 'high up' put a stop to it. Speeds in excess of 80mph being reached.
The first seven locos withdrawn were 92034 from Immingham Shed and 92169, 92170, 92171, 92175, 92176 and 92177 from Doncaster Shed on 31 May 1964, being only 6 years old!
The last three locos withdrawn were 92077, 92160, 92167 withdrawn from Carnforth Shed on 30 June 1968, two months before the end of steam on BR.
There are nine members of the class preserved: 92134, 92203 (based at the East Somerset Railway and now named Black Prince), 92207, 92212, 92214, 92219, 92220 (National Railway Museum, York), 92240 and 92245.
Motive Power Details
86 tons 14 cwt
90 tons 14 cwt (a)
50 tons 5 cwt BR1B 4,725 gallons, 7 tons coal 92020-9/60-6/97-9
53 tons 5 cwt BR1C 4,725 gallons, 9 tons coal (f)
55 tons 5 cwt BR1F 5,625 gallons, 7 tons coal (g)
52 tons 10 cwt BR1G 5,000 gallons, 7 tons coal 92000-9/92203-50
52 tons 7 cwt BR1K 4,250 gallons, 9 tons coal 92165-7
Driving Wheel: 5' 0"
Pony Wheels: 3ft
Boil Press: 250lb/sq in Su
Flue and Tube Area: 2,014 ft?
Firebox Area: 179 ft?
Superheater Area: 535 ft?
Grate Area: 40.2 ft?
Cylinders: Two 20" x 28" (outside)
Valve Gear: Walschaerts (piston valves)
TE: 39,670 lb
Overall Length: 66' 2"
Class Total: 251
Allocation and Withdrawal Details
Last Updated : Monday 10th February 2014 07:06